class adaptive.Learner2D(function: Callable, bounds: tuple[tuple[Union[float, numpy.float64, int, numpy.int64], Union[float, numpy.float64, int, numpy.int64]], tuple[Union[float, numpy.float64, int, numpy.int64], Union[float, numpy.float64, int, numpy.int64]]], loss_per_triangle: = None)[source]#

Bases: BaseLearner

Learns and predicts a function βf: β^2 β β^Nβ.

Parameters:
• function (callable) β The function to learn. Must take a tuple of two real parameters and return a real number.

• bounds (list of 2-tuples) β A list [(a1, b1), (a2, b2)] containing bounds, one per dimension.

• loss_per_triangle (callable, optional) β A function that returns the loss for every triangle. If not provided, then a default is used, which uses the deviation from a linear estimate, as well as triangle area, to determine the loss. See the notes for more details.

data#

Sampled points and values.

Type:

dict

pending_points#

Points that still have to be evaluated and are currently interpolated, see data_combined.

Type:

set

stack_size#

The size of the new candidate points stack. Set it to 1 to recalculate the best points at each call to ask.

Type:

int, default: 10

aspect_ratio#

Average ratio of x span over y span of a triangle. If there is more detail in either x or y the aspect_ratio needs to be adjusted. When aspect_ratio > 1 the triangles will be stretched along x, otherwise along y.

Type:

float, int, default: 1

Notes

Adapted from an initial implementation by Pauli Virtanen.

The sample points are chosen by estimating the point where the linear and cubic interpolants based on the existing points have maximal disagreement. This point is then taken as the next point to be sampled.

In practice, this sampling protocol results to sparser sampling of smooth regions, and denser sampling of regions where the function changes rapidly, which is useful if the function is expensive to compute.

This sampling procedure is not extremely fast, so to benefit from it, your function needs to be slow enough to compute.

loss_per_triangle takes a single parameter, ip, which is a scipy.interpolate.LinearNDInterpolator. You can use the undocumented attributes tri and values of ip to get a scipy.spatial.Delaunay and a vector of function values. These can be used to compute the loss. The functions areas and deviations to calculate the areas and deviations from a linear interpolation over each triangle.

ask(n: int, tell_pending: bool = True) tuple[list[tuple[float, float] | numpy.ndarray], list[float]][source]#

Choose the next βnβ points to evaluate.

Parameters:
• n (int) β The number of points to choose.

• tell_pending (bool, default: True) β If True, add the chosen points to this learnerβs pending_points. Set this to False if you do not want to modify the state of the learner.

property bounds_are_done: bool#
inside_bounds(xy: ) Union[bool, bool_][source]#
interpolated_on_grid(n: = None) tuple[numpy.ndarray, numpy.ndarray, numpy.ndarray][source]#

Get the interpolated data on a grid.

Parameters:

n (int, optional) β Number of points in x and y. If None (default) this number is evaluated by looking at the size of the smallest triangle.

Returns:

• xs (1D numpy.ndarray)

• ys (1D numpy.ndarray)

• interpolated_on_grid (2D numpy.ndarray)

interpolator(*, scaled: bool = False) [source]#

A scipy.interpolate.LinearNDInterpolator instance containing the learnerβs data.

Parameters:

scaled (bool) β Use True if all points are inside the unit-square [(-0.5, 0.5), (-0.5, 0.5)] or False if the data points are inside the learner.bounds.

Returns:

interpolator

Return type:

scipy.interpolate.LinearNDInterpolator

Examples

>>> xs, ys = [np.linspace(*b, num=100) for b in learner.bounds]
>>> ip = learner.interpolator()
>>> zs = ip(xs[:, None], ys[None, :])

ip() [source]#

Deprecated, use self.interpolator(scaled=True)

load_dataframe(df: DataFrame, with_default_function_args: bool = True, function_prefix: str = 'function.', x_name: str = 'x', y_name: str = 'y', z_name: str = 'z')[source]#

Load data from a pandas.DataFrame.

If with_default_function_args is True, then learner.functionβs default arguments are set (using functools.partial) from the values in the pandas.DataFrame.

Parameters:
• df (pandas.DataFrame) β The data to load.

• with_default_function_args (bool, optional) β The with_default_function_args used in to_dataframe(), by default True

• function_prefix (str, optional) β The function_prefix used in to_dataframe, by default βfunction.β

• x_name (str, optional) β The x_name used in to_dataframe, by default βxβ

• y_name (str, optional) β The y_name used in to_dataframe, by default βyβ

• z_name (str, optional) β The z_name used in to_dataframe, by default βzβ

loss(real: bool = True) [source]#

Return the loss for the current state of the learner.

Parameters:

real (bool, default: True) β If False, return the βexpectedβ loss, i.e. the loss including the as-yet unevaluated points (possibly by interpolation).

new() [source]#

Return a new learner with the same function and parameters.

property npoints: int#

Number of evaluated points.

plot(n=None, tri_alpha=0)[source]#

Plot the Learner2Dβs current state.

This plot function interpolates the data on a regular grid. The gridspacing is evaluated by checking the size of the smallest triangle.

Parameters:
• n (int) β Number of points in x and y. If None (default) this number is evaluated by looking at the size of the smallest triangle.

• tri_alpha (float) β The opacity (0 <= tri_alpha <= 1) of the triangles overlayed on top of the image. By default the triangulation is not visible.

Returns:

plot β A holoviews.core.Overlay of holoviews.Image * holoviews.EdgePaths. If the learner.function returns a vector output, a holoviews.core.HoloMap of the holoviews.core.Overlays wil be returned.

Return type:

Notes

The plot object that is returned if learner.function returns a vector cannot be used with the live_plotting functionality.

remove_unfinished() None[source]#

Remove uncomputed data from the learner.

tell(point: , value: ) None[source]#

Tell the learner about a single value.

Parameters:
• x (A value from the function domain) β

• y (A value from the function image) β

tell_pending(point: ) None[source]#

Tell the learner that βxβ has been requested such that itβs not suggested again.

to_dataframe(with_default_function_args: bool = True, function_prefix: str = 'function.', x_name: str = 'x', y_name: str = 'y', z_name: str = 'z') DataFrame[source]#

Return the data as a pandas.DataFrame.

Parameters:
• with_default_function_args (bool, optional) β Include the learner.functionβs default arguments as a column, by default True

• function_prefix (str, optional) β Prefix to the learner.functionβs default argumentsβ names, by default βfunction.β

• seed_name (str, optional) β Name of the seed parameter, by default βseedβ

• x_name (str, optional) β Name of the input x value, by default βxβ

• y_name (str, optional) β Name of the input y value, by default βyβ

• z_name (str, optional) β Name of the output value, by default βzβ

Return type:

pandas.DataFrame

Raises:

ImportError β If pandas is not installed.

to_numpy()[source]#

Data as NumPy array of size (npoints, 3) if learner.function returns a scalar and (npoints, 2+vdim) if learner.function returns a vector of length vdim.

property vdim: int#

Length of the output of learner.function. If the output is unsized (when itβs a scalar) then vdim = 1.

As long as no data is known vdim = 1.

property xy_scale: ndarray#

## Custom loss functions#

Loss function that combines deviations and areas of the triangles.

Works with Learner2D only.

Parameters:

ip (scipy.interpolate.LinearNDInterpolator instance) β

Returns:

losses β Loss per triangle in ip.tri.

Return type:

numpy.ndarray

Loss function that is similar to the distance loss function in the Learner1D. The loss is the area spanned by the 3D vectors of the vertices.

Works with Learner2D only.

Parameters:

ip (scipy.interpolate.LinearNDInterpolator instance) β

Returns:

losses β Loss per triangle in ip.tri.

Return type:

numpy.ndarray

Examples

>>> from adaptive.learner.learner2D import minimize_triangle_surface_loss
>>> def f(xy):
...     x, y = xy
...     return x**2 + y**2
>>>
>>> learner = adaptive.Learner2D(f, bounds=[(-1, -1), (1, 1)],
...     loss_per_triangle=minimize_triangle_surface_loss)
>>>


Loss function that samples the domain uniformly.

Works with Learner2D only.

Parameters:

ip (scipy.interpolate.LinearNDInterpolator instance) β

Returns:

losses β Loss per triangle in ip.tri.

Return type:

numpy.ndarray

Examples

>>> from adaptive.learner.learner2D import uniform_loss
>>> def f(xy):
...     x, y = xy
...     return x**2 + y**2
>>>
...     f,
...     bounds=[(-1, -1), (1, 1)],
...     loss_per_triangle=uniform_loss,
... )
>>>

adaptive.learner.learner2D.resolution_loss_function(min_distance: float = 0, max_distance: float = 1) Callable[[LinearNDInterpolator], ndarray][source]#

Loss function that is similar to the default_loss function, but you can set the maximimum and minimum size of a triangle.

Works with Learner2D only.

The arguments min_distance and max_distance should be in between 0 and 1 because the total area is normalized to 1.

Returns:

loss_function

Return type:

callable

Examples

>>> def f(xy):
...     x, y = xy
...     return x**2 + y**2
>>>
>>> loss = resolution_loss_function(min_distance=0.01, max_distance=1)
>>> learner = adaptive.Learner2D(f, bounds=[(-1, -1), (1, 1)], loss_per_triangle=loss)


## Helper functions#

Returns the area per triangle of the triangulation inside a LinearNDInterpolator instance.

Is useful when defining custom loss functions.

Parameters:

ip (scipy.interpolate.LinearNDInterpolator instance) β

Returns:

areas β The area per triangle in ip.tri.

Return type:

numpy.ndarray

Returns the deviation of the linear estimate.

Is useful when defining custom loss functions.

Parameters:

ip (scipy.interpolate.LinearNDInterpolator instance) β

Returns:

deviations β The deviation per triangle.

Return type:

list